Lakes Description characteristics
In Karelia are the largest lakes of Europe – Ladoga and Onega. Stand out for their size also Vygozero (1000 sq km), Topozero. Segozero, Pjaozero, Vodlozero, Kuito, Sumozero. In total there are about 60000 lakes with a total area of over 40,000 sq km of Lake area up to 1 sq km make up 97,4% and cover about 10000 sq km.
The origin of the lakes can be divided into waste (the deepest – type Topozero, Pyaozero), glacial, depression which wapahani the glacier and subglacial streams (lakes of medium and shallow depths), and Zapadno river, resulting from block of river valleys by glacial sediments (Ondozero, Gimolskoye).
Like rivers, all the lakes of Karelia belong to the basins of White and Baltic seas. The height of the watershed which runs from the Northern part of the West Karelian upland to the southern part of Segozero, between lakes Onega and Vygozero and further to the Southeast in the direction of Pudozh district, is 150-200 m.
All large, medium and most small (1 sq km) the lakes – flow-through or waste, which is beneficial for fish life and other living organisms. Approximately 31,000 small lakes, forest Lambin area of 1 sq km – beremennosti. They bezrybya or izmelchai inhabited by perch, roach, burbot. Flow-through lakes, connected by rivers form a complex system with a natural flow regulation. However, annual variations in the levels of most lakes is an average of 0.4-0.6 M.
Karelian lakes are typically well-developed shoreline (kereti. Vygozero, Topozero, Pyaozero). The shores are mostly low, rocky-stony, sandy. Meet rocky, steep, with a height of several tens of meters. Many, mainly small and medium-sized, lakes are muddy shores.
A characteristic feature of the Karelian lakes – a large number of Islands (on the Vyg is more than 500, Tiksheozero is about 350, the Vodlozero – 200, kerati – 140, Konsere – 100),
The average maximum lake depth of 21.3 m, which largely explains the widespread use here a cold-water fish – grayling, trout, vendace, whitefish.
The bottom surface of the lakes is covered, as a rule, sludge, and off – products of their destruction. Because the bottom silts contain up to 90% of mineral particles, and the temperature at depths is low, the processes of putrefaction in the silts are small, which also positively affects the life of the fish.
The vast majority of medium-sized and large lakes have water clarity of 6-8 m with a bluish-green color, allowing you to do underwater photography.
Feature deep lakes of Karelia – the low temperature in the bottom layers, which in summer is +7-10C at a depth of 15-27 m, and the upper layer warms up to +19-23C. In lakes with maximum depth of 12 m separation temperature is not observed and the difference between near-bottom and surface layers is no more than 3 seconds, due to wind and gravitational mixing of waters. In July – August in small and medium lakes, shallow bays of large lakes in the surface water layer is heated to 24-25C, and large lakes in North Karelia (Topozero, Pyaozero ) up to 18C. Cold water usually begins in late August.
In Karelia there are about 27,000 rivers, the largest of which are: Vodla (length — 149 km), the Kem (191 km), Onda (197 km), UNGA, the Chirka-Kem (221 km), the Kovda, the Shuya, Suna and waterfall Kivach, vig.
Also in the Republic, about 60 000 lakes. Together with the swamps, they now contain about 2000 km? high-quality fresh water. Ladoga and Onego are the largest lakes in Europe. Other large lakes: Nuke (Nuokkijarvi), Pyaozero (Paajarvi), Segozero (Seesjarvi), Syamozero (Saamajarvi), Topozero (Tuoppajarvi), Vygozero (Uikujarvi), jushkozero (Jyskyjarvi).
The deepest Karelian lake Ladoga is: its maximum depth is 260 m. the Significantly smaller Onega – 126 meters and such large lakes, as Syamozero – 97 Topozero m – 56 m. And in this company the lakes – giants “wormed” tiny in comparison with them, typically tectonic lake paanajärvi, stretched a narrow strip (width 1.5 km, length 24 km) among the hills North-West of Karelia. His depth of 131 m. This is a Karelian – Baikal.