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Red Lake


The Red lake is the largest lake in southern Chukotka, located in the lower reaches of the Anadyr river on its right Bank, and occupies a vast depression. From the West the basin is bounded by uplifts Cichowski mountains (280-390 m), and the East spur of the ridge Rarytkin (350-420 m).

The lake itself represents a fragment of the old course of the Anadyr. However, the presence of a considerable number of large pieces of obsidian, scattered along the shores of the lake and inflowing in it rivers can testify to the participation in the formation of the ancient lake basin of volcanic processes. The length and width of the lake is 35 km and 15 km, depth to 4 m, and the total surface area of 458 km2. Two channels of the lake connects with the river Anadyr. The Eastern shore of the lake is steep, while the Northern and southern low-lying, gently sloping.

A small river feeding the lake, do not have a well-developed floodplain, are not expressed itself floodplain facies and the Anadyr river and its ducts at the outlet of the lake (ducts Ermak, Direct, Baraquel). A large part of meandering channels, oxbow lakes and found a large drawdown sandy-clayey terraces with lakes. The lake the feeding of whitefish, immediately after the ice melts it come small herds of Beluga whales. Geobotanically the lake district is included in the subzone of bushy tundras.

For the elevated areas characterized by low hills and elevation with combinations of cedar-creeping shrubs, shrub moss-lichen tundra and alder. Among the plants represented cedar, in some places reaching a height of 3 m, in the lower tier there is dwarf Arctic birch, willow, rhododendron and hypoesthesia shrubs, such as cranberries, blueberries, Labrador tea.

River valleys are covered mostly with alder forests with cedar elfin wood, currants sad, Anadyr mountain ash, wild rose and alder in the understory, interspersed by grass-forb meadows and bogs. Continuous forests are to the South-Western edge of the lake in the river valleys and Kavallerie Birch, and Aspen in the valley.

Here are the taiga forest community: chozenievaja trees (Chosenia arbutifolia) fragrant poplar (Populus suaveolens). The grass layer is dominated by such plants characteristic of tundra and forest tundra, as Calamagrostis langsdorffii and Pyrola rotundifolia. For estuarine and island communities with prolonged inundation during the floods characterized by dense low-growing willow of Salix schwerinii and S. udensis.

Smaller area is occupied by sandy beaches and alluvial the alluvial cone along the shores of the lake terraces with sixieme tundra and wastelands. On the tops and upper parts of the ridge Rarytkin common gravelly Dryad, Drianovo-herb, lichen and shrub tundra, the ridge slopes are covered with thickets of dwarf Siberian pine and alder. A vast plain to the North of the lake. Red on the left Bank of the Anadyr river is occupied by hummocky sedge-cottongrass and shrub moss-lichen tundra, and areas with sedge and sphagnum bogs. For this territory is also characterized by large and small lakes, including lakes and overgrown streams with meadows and willows along the banks. From the localities nearby is a small (about 100 inhabitants) village Krasneno, which is located on the Eastern shore of the lake.

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