Victoria (Victoria Nyanza, Ukereoue, eng. Lake Victoria, Victoria Nyanza, Swahili Ziwa Victoria viktória Nyanza, Nyanza Ziwa) is a lake in East Africa, in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. Located in a tectonic trough of the East African platform, at a height of 1134 m. This is the 2nd largest freshwater lake in the world after lake superior the largest lake in Africa by area. It is also the highest among tropical lakes. Show all..
Discovered the lake and named it in honor of Queen Victoria of the British Explorer John Henning Speke in 1858.
Hollow lake. Victoria in East Africa was formed as a result of the doming uplift of the surrounding land.
The area of 68 thousand km2, length 320 km, the maximum width of 275 km. Is part of the Victoria reservoir. A lot of Islands. Abundant river flows into the Kagera, it follows the Victoria Nile. The lake is navigable, the people engaged on it fishing.
North shore crosses the equator. Lake with a maximum depth of 80 m is a sufficiently deep lakes.
In contrast to the deep neighbors, Tanganyika and Nyasa, which lie within a system of gorges of Africa, lake Victoria fills a shallow depression between the Eastern and Western sides of the valley Great gorge. The lake receives a huge amount of water from rain, more than from all their tributaries.
Around the lake there live 30 million people. On the southern and Western shores of the lake lives the Haya people who knew how to grow coffee long before the arrival of Europeans. Main ports: Entebbe (Uganda), Mwanza, Bukoba (Tanzania), Kisumu (Kenya), near the Northern coast and Kampala, capital of Uganda.
Flora and fauna
In its waters is found a huge number of crocodiles, and here still lives the representative of an ancient group of freshwater fishes — procopter that can breathe both with gills and lungs. This unique fish is a link between regular fish and land animals.
On the territory of the lake are the famous reserves and National parks. The most interesting national Park of the island of Rubondo — Rubondo Island (450 sq km). The uniqueness of Rubondo that it is impossible to navigate by car (in order to preserve the environment). This allows and during Hiking to see animals at a closer distance than in a jeep.
The island has no wild beasts, fauna and flora of Rubondo extremely rich and diverse. The combination of lush forests, Savannah, woodlands and wetlands have created the perfect conditions for a wide variety of animals. Some of which are unique. For example, its found in Tanzania almost exclusively on the island of Rubondo. By its — it is an unusual antelope that lives in marshes. She is extremely funny, especially interesting to her hooves — they are much elongated (10 cm) and widely spaced, like palm leaves. In addition, it is home to elephants, rhinos, giraffes, scimitar-horned antelope, hippos, crocodiles, calstatela, chimpanzees, green monkeys, porcupines, mongoose, pythons that can swallow a small antelope, Mamba, cobras, vipers, butterflies and numerous birds: osprey, eagles, herons-Goliath, Royal ibises and kingfishers.
The lake’s ecological status is in serious jeopardy due to the intensive growth of the local population, clear cutting forests around the coast, evolved rynearson industry, the emergence and survival of exotic plants and animals and, as a consequence, the disappearance of more than 50 % of the local fish (previously only species of perch-petrona there were about 400), hypertrophic growth of algae and discharge of untreated waste water plants and sewage coastal settlement.
To increase the number of fish in the water of the lake was released the Nile perch, which led to the extinction of many species of native fish. The damage is enormous and in large part irreversible. Traditional community lifestyle with its assigns, the farm on the lake was destroyed and little by little it fades away. Naturalists agreed that if not to take urgent measures to save the lake, it will die.
In addition to eutrofization and increasing drainage for intensive drying of the lake responsible water lilies. These freshwater plants are distinguished by their unusual vitality and an intense breeding, were brought to Africa in the early twentieth century as decorations. Since then they have been intensively disseminated. In the late 1990s, water lilies became the reason of sharp reduction of a livestock of fish in lake Victoria, as water-lilies out of the water absorb a significant amount of oxygen. In addition, their leaves and tendrils block the inflows and outflows of water from the lake, are affecting fishing and shipping. OSIENALA monitors the proliferation of water lilies and takes immediate action by increasing their numbers.
Due to falling water levels in lake Victoria, in early 2006, the representative of “the Organization for the reduction of natural disasters to the UN” (eng. UN’s International Strategy for Disaster Reduction) reported that a Ugandan hydroelectric power plant consumes more water than is provided for under an international Treaty, signed 50 years ago.
Organization for the protection of lake
Partner organisation of the Living lakes at lake Victoria is OSIENALA (friends of lake Victoria), a non-profit public organization registered in Kenya but also active in Tanzania and Uganda. 150 of its members are fishermen, farmers, brigade, mugs naturalists, communities, non-governmental organizations and scientific institutions of the region.
Currently OSIENALA engaged in the fight against poverty 4 millions of natives of Kenya and aims to strengthen the capacity of neighborhood and tribal communities in order to organize their activities on self-monitoring and self-protection of the environment in their region. Currently based “offspring” of the society of friends of lake Victoria — ECOVIC international organization — the East African communities Organization for management of lake Victoria resources.